THE ISLAMIC WORLD
From about AD 700 to 1200, the Islamic World experienced a period of great power. It led the rest of the globe in learning, invention and architecture. Islamic leaders controlled lands from southern Spain to northwest India.
* WHAT IS ISLAM ?
The religious faith taught by the Prophet Muhammad. People who follow the faith of Islam are called Muslims. Muhammad was a religious AD 570 To 632. He taught people to worship Allah, the one God. At its peak, the vast Islamic world- stretching from Spain and North Africa, through Central Asia to northwest India- was ruled by Muslim princes and governed by Islamic laws.
*WHO WERE THE MONGOLS ?
The were nomads who roamed over Central Asia. In AD 1206, the Mongol tribes united under a leader known as Genghis Khan (‘Superme Ruler’) and set out to conquer the world. At its peak, the Mongol Empire spread from China to Eastern Europe.
*WHO INVENTED THE ASTROLABE?
The astrolabe was perfected by Muslim scientists who lived and worked in the Middle East in the 8th century. Astrolabes were scientific instrument that helped sailors find their position when they were at sea. They worked by measuring the height of Sun above the horizon.
* WHO LIVED IN A CIRCULAR CITY ?
The citizen of Baghdad, which was founded in AD 765 by the caliph (ruler)Al-Mansur. He employed builder and architects to create a huge circular city, surrounded by strong walls. There were palaces, government offices, mosques, hospitals, schools, libraries and gardens.
*WHAT WERE SHIPS OF THE DESERT ?
Camels owned by merchants who lived in Arabia. They were the only animals that could survive long enough without food and water to make journeys across the desert, laden with goods to sell. They stored enough nourishments in their humps to last several days.
*WHAT WERE THE CRUSADES ?
A series of wars fought between Christian and Muslim soldiers for control of the area around Jerusalem (in present day Israel), which was holy to Muslims, Christian and Jews. The Crusades began in 1095, when a Christian army attacked (right). Their main period ended in 1291, when Muslims, soldiers forced the Christian to leave.