Monday, 6 November 2017

Invention and discovery


1. Who invented the first calculator that could perform all four basic arithmetic operation?
The first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operation - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division - was called the Stepped Reckoner. It was invented by German mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, around 1672. This device had drums having ten flutes arranged around there circumference in a stair- step fashion. Each drum having 10 flutes represent the decimal number system. However, in 1820, Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, a Frenchman invented a calculating machine that could perform the four basic arithmetic functions.     

2. Where was gun powder invented?

Gunpowder was invented in China,

probably 3,000 year ago Experimenting with life lengthening elixirs around A.D. 850, Chinese alchemists instead discovered gunpowder. It mixture of potassium nitrate (saltpeter), charcoal, and sulfurs, in a ratio. The Chinese used gunpowder to make fireworks and  signals, and later to make weapons of war. Gunpowder is still the basis for many modern weapons, including guns, though it's certainly no longer the most explosive force available to armies.

3. How was the light- year discovered?

In 1676, a Danish astronomer named Olaus Roemer noticed that eclipses of one of the moons of Jupiter kept coming later as the earth moved in its orbit to the opposite side of the sun that occupied Jupiter. Then,  as the earth moved back into its former position, the eclipse came on schedule again. The difference in time added up to nearly 17 minutes. This could mean only that it takes that length of time foe light to travel the diameter of the earth's orbit. This distance was known to be very nearly 186,000,000 miles. Since it took light about 1,000 second ( nearly 17min) to go this distance, it meant tat the speed of light is about 186,000 miles per second. Later, an American physicist Albert Abraham
Michelson (1852 - 1931) gave a more accurate measurement of the speed of light - 186,284 miles per second. If we multiply this speed by the second in a year, we find that light travel 5.88 trillion miles (or 9.46 trillion kilometer) in a year - and this is what we call a light year.

4. How was Pluto, the dwarf planet, discovered?

 In 1915, an american astronomer, Percival Lowell, believed that the motion of planet Uranus was being affected by still another planet beyond Neptune. Other astronomers felt that the motion of Neptune itself was being affected by some planet beyond it. So, a systematic search began with the telescope. On February 18, 1930, an American astronomer, Clyde William Tombaugh discovered a new object near the position that had been predicted by
Lowell. This was named Pluto. The name was suggested by a 11 year old girl from England that meant Roman God of the underworld. This was accepted as its first two letters were the initials of was given the status of a planet. But later, in 2006, it was categorized as a dwarf planet. Pluto was the first object to be discovered in what would later be identified as the Kuiper belt.